The Republic of Uzbekistan - The Republic of Uzbekistan is located in the central part of Central Asia, between two rivers of the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. In the northwest of the republic there is the Turan lowland and the Tien-Shan mountains, in the southeast there are the Pamir-Alai mountain ranges. In the north there is the Kyzylkum desert. The highest altitude above sea level is 4643 m (Gissar range). The lowest point is 12.8 m below sea level (the Mingbulak depression in the Kyzyl Kum Desert).
Territory - 447.4 thousand square kilometers. The distance between the southern and northern extremities is 925 km, between the western and eastern extremities - 1400 km. Uzbekistan borders with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyzstan), Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan. The length of the border is 6621 km.
The capital - Tashkent.
Official language - Uzbek. Russian is the language of international communication for people of over 100 nationalities living on the territory of Uzbekistan.
Population - 32,121 million people (January 1, 2017)
The birth rate is 450 - 500 thousand people per year. Children and adolescents under the age of 15 represented 43%.
Administrative division - 12 regions (regions) and the autonomous republic of Karakalpakstan.
Climate - The Central Asian climate is cold winters and very hot and dry summers. The climate is sharply continental. The average annual rainfall on the plains is 90-580 mm, in mountainous areas - 460- 910 mm. The number of sunny days is about 300 per year.
The national cuisine of Uzbekistan
When it comes to the Uzbek cuisine all immediately remember Uzbek pilaf. But not a single famous Uzbek pilaf kitchen.The national cuisine of Uzbekistan has an ancient history and is closely linked with the Uzbek culture, language, traditions and geographical - climatic conditions. Significant impact on the diversity and originality of the recipes of Uzbek cuisine was that in contrast to the closest geographical neighbors cuisine (the nomadic peoples of the Kazakhs, Karakalpak, Kyrgyz and Turkmen) Uzbeks have historically been characteristic of both sedentary and nomadic.The Uzbek national cuisine - is hearty and flavorful meat dishes, stews with an abundance of fresh vegetables and herbs, exotic sweets and original cakes. Features of Uzbek cuisine, as well as many other national cuisines, due to the specifics of local agriculture. In Uzbekistan, a very well developed grain farming, so crucial in the local cuisine have noodles and bread.The recipe dishes of Uzbek cuisine is huge. There are more than 100 kinds of plov, 60 kinds of soups, 30 kinds of barbecue.
Decorative Applied Arts and Crafts of Uzbekistan
Culture of Uzbekistan: the ancient heritageCulture of Uzbekistan is bright and original, it was formed over thousands of years and has absorbed the traditions and customs of peoples in different times inhabited the territory of modern Uzbekistan.His contributions were made in her ancient Iranians, Greeks, nomadic Turkic tribes, Arabs, Chinese, Russian. multinational Uzbek traditions are reflected in the music, dance, painting, arts and crafts, language, cuisine and clothing. Residents of Uzbekistan, especially people living in rural areas, honored traditions, roots stretching deep into the history of the region.Particular influence on the culture of Uzbekistan has the great Silk Road. As a trade route, he walked out of the land of China in two directions: the first - in Fergana and the Kazakh steppes, and the second - to Bactria, and then - in Parthia, India and the Middle East up to the Mediterranean Sea. Silk Road facilitated the transfer of not only goods, but also technology, languages, ideas, especially religious. Since the Great Silk Road contributed to the spread of Buddhism throughout Central Asia, along the ancient route preserved monuments of Buddhist culture: Ajina-Tepa in Tajikistan, a Buddhist temple in Kuva in the Ferghana Valley, Fayaz-Tepe, near Termez in Uzbekistan and others.
At all times and in all countries of old people liked to decorate themselves, and what can be better than to decorate themselves, if not clothes. However, in addition to clothing aesthetic functions must meet the climatic conditions and tribal traditions. The main factor in the Uzbek national clothes, of course, was Islam. Therefore, the toilet items were broad, long, single cut, designed to fall freely and fully cover the human body.Traditional clothing Uzbeks continued preserving the archaic features until the 20th century. Men, women and even children's clothes differed uniformity, and were practically identical in shape and design.Each curl pattern ornament or carry meaning. By giving, when he was in the distant masters-embroiderers applied to the whole material letters, which were read on separate elements. For example, Suzanne - embroidered decorative material - often called the song, composed on the fabric. All of the Uzbek national costume carry the secret of different ages, the spirit of the time. Bright patterns are equally look great both on women and on men.
The ancient cities of Central Asia, which took place on the Silk Road, has always been famous for the production of fine fabrics. Centers Uzbek weaving were Bukhara, Margilan remain, Namangan, Kokand and others. Today, these places are famous for the beauty of hand-silk manufactured there, not only across the country but also for the whole world. The centuries-old tradition of hand-made silk and cotton fabrics are an integral part of the national dress, culture and interiorHis proud name of the fabric is for many centuries. Royal silk pleases with its beauty everyone who looks at him, enveloping tenderness and freshness of its wearer.Rainbow silk fabric is an integral part of Uzbek culture. Margilan silk is famous for the unique pattern in the East and the West. He was a valuable commodity in the times of the Great Silk Road, through which it exported in Khorasan, Egypt, Baghdad, Greece and other countries. Khan-atlas gave a gift, we have inherited, and even paid off in commercial transactions.Initially, the center was shelkoproizvodstva Bukhara, but then most colorful fabrics are produced in Margilan. In silk craftsmen of the city of Fergana valley has its own unique technology for extracting the thread from the cocoon and dyeing of fibers. The process of manufacturing fabrics by hand is very time-consuming.
Uzbek wedding traditions
Uzbekistan is of great importance public opinion. It is particularly important that it is thinking about the partner or partner dear, elderly relatives from both sides. From the height of his experience and old age, family members can judge the appropriateness of this or that union, so the wedding of Uzbeks held only after the approval of the older generation. To some extent they are even taking the lead by offering to groom young bride with a good pedigree.
Parents of an adult son in advance take care of suitable female candidates. They connect friends and acquaintances in order to learn all about the reputation of a young girl, her social status, good and bad qualities and education.
When the candidates will be selected, enter into business matchmaker. They are referred to the groom's parents to the bride's house in order to find out all about its hospitality and cleanliness. Matchmakers act as observers and after the courtship ceremony make a decisive conclusion.
As a rule, opposition on the part of the bride are rare. Matchmaker often glad, but there are times that you can reach agreement only the third time.
Rites of the Uzbek weddings are very diverse, and the first of them - Non-sindirish. Representatives of the bride and groom break a cake that says permission wedding.
Art galleries and museums of Uzbekistan
Today in Uzbekistan there are 110 different museums, 98 of which, including branches of the state museums are under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The largest number of museums located in Tashkent. Other interesting museums of Uzbekistan are the main tourist cities, which include Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva. One of the most famous museums in Central Asia - the name Museum of Art I. Savitsky - is located in the city of Nukus - the capital and administrative center of the Republic of Karakalpakstan.The increasing popularity in Uzbekistan win art galleries and craft centers, which promoted Uzbek modern and classical art and crafts. In Tashkent, about a dozen major art galleries, which regularly hosts exhibitions of fine art, antiques exhibited folk art, antiques and other items that are part of the cultural heritage of Uzbekistan. Art studio and gallery open in other major cities of Uzbekistan: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and enjoyed great success as a tourist destination, and the residents of Uzbekistan.
The traditional Uzbek music has ancient origins. Uzbek folk music, music of the people, is divided into many genres.Among them lullabies and children's songs, folk, labor and household songs, dialogues, lyrics, song and dance, lyrical and lingering.Classical Uzbek music - it makoms - a special genre of music, which is characteristic drawl touching execution. Their lyrical singers sing verses of poets of the East (Jami, Navoi, Fuzuli, Hafiz, Uvaysi, Nadir, Mukimi Ogahi et al.). UNESCO included "Shashmaqom" traditional music of Uzbekistan in the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.He is speaking of the richness of the Uzbek musical traditions and a variety of folk instruments: bow-string - gidzhak, kobuz, setor and sato; stringed and plucked instruments - dombra, dutar tanbur, beats and rubob; stringed and percussion chang; brass reed - sibizik, bulaman, surnay and koshnay; brass flute - nai-nai and gadzhir; brass - karnay; drums - doira, Highlands, chindaul, safail, Koshukov and others.
Nature and reserves of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan impresses with its natural contrasts. Monotonous gray desert - and the high snow-capped mountains. Full rivers - and unusual waterless space. Most of the territory belongs to the Turan plain and does not differ by sharp contrasts of heights. Turan plate and the land, which later became the mountains of Tien Shan and Pamir-Alai, was formed as a result of the Paleozoic orogenesis. Plate this later on for a long time covered with the sea.
Aral Sea - closed lake in Central Asia, on the border of Uzbekistan (north - west) and Kazakhstan (south - east).In the mid 60-ies of XX century. Aral Sea was the fourth largest lake in the world and covers an area about 68 thousand square kilometers.; Its length is 426 km, width - 284 km, maximum depth - 68 m.Despite this, today the Aral Sea tours are very popular. Tourists are attracted here the beauty of its steep banks, incredible sunsets, the opportunity to swim in the fading sea view ship graveyard in a former port Muinak. Just beautiful and difficult road to the Aral Sea (the path from Nukus to Cape Aktumsyk (550 km.) Takes the whole day). Along the way, tourists make a stop at the picturesque lake spills Sudoche - with an incredible accumulation of birds, as well as the ancient Saka burials at Urga village. Also, tourists will see will pass on the lifeless Ustyurt plateau.
Hunting and fishing
Quick mountain rivers, man-made canals, major rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya, a lake in the desert, combined with exotic cities is the fact that we can offer fans of fishing. Along with the traditional common types of fish: carp, barbel carp, chub, perch, catfish, bream, chuhon, it is possible to catch those species that are unique to Central Asia. These are: zmeygolova, Marina, Tupac or Samarkand Waddler. In some reservoirs have a chance to catch unique specimens of catfish are quite large.Whatever you say, and the best way for men to relax, escape from the bustle of the city - is to go on the hunt! Proximity to nature, hunting excitement, the adrenaline in the blood, and if in addition to this will be selected friendly company - a great vacation is guaranteed! Hunting: wild ducks, geese, cormorants, wild boar, fox, hare, porcupine, mink, stone marten.
National games is an integral part of the culture of the peoples of Uzbekistan. Since ancient times, during the major holidays, weddings, festivals people enjoying themselves, having fun, and organized competitions in strength, agility, quickness, wit.Today, folk games in Uzbekistan are not forgotten, and even experiencing a rebirth. Some of them as a struggle Kurash, Ulak-Kupkari reached the world level, as individual sports.
Interesting facts about Uzbekistan
Since ancient times, Uzbekistan was the crossroads of caravan routes connecting link between the two countries and peoples, a place of meeting languages, cultures and civilizations. Here the Great Silk Road that connected China, India, Iran, Iraq, the Middle East and the Mediterranean. One of the longest streets in Tashkent and the metro station at the beginning still bear the name of "Buyuk Ipak Yuli", which means the Great Silk Road. The endless camel caravans transported carpets, silk, porcelain, and precious stones, spices and medicines.